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Obstet Gynecol Sci > Accepted Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5468/ogs.22175    [Accepted]
Published online January 4, 2023.
The complement system in preeclampsia: a review of its activation and endothelial injury in the triad of COVID 19 infection and HIV-associated preeclampsia
Mikyle David, Thajasvarie Naicker
Optics and Imaging Centre, Dorris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Correspondence:  Mikyle David,
Email: mikyledavid101@gmail.com
Received: 20 June 2022   • Revised: 23 November 2022   • Accepted: 13 December 2022
This review assessed the complement system and its activation with respect to the pathological features of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and preeclampsia (PE). The complement system is the first defensive response of the host innate immune system to viral pathogens, including SARS-Cov-2. SARS-CoV-2 entry results in the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemical mediators to create a “cytokine storm”. Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and cell-mediated injury are also observed. These factors exacerbate inflammation. During HIV infection and PE, various complement components are elevated, causing a hyperinflammatory state. Furthermore, EC dysfunction and cell-mediated injury are also observed. The similarities in the pathological aspects of these three disorders may emanate from excessive complement activation. This review serves as a platform for further research on the complement system, coronavirus disease-2019, HIV, and PE.
Key Words: SARS-CoV-2, HIV infection, Preeclampsia, Complement system
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