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Korean Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2004;47(4):634-649.
Published online April 1, 2004.
Anti-tumor Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Extracted from Green Tea on Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines.
Seung Won Huh, Su Mi Bae, Chan Hee Han, Ji Hyang Choi, Chong Kook Kim, Eun Kyung Park, Duck Young Ro, Joon Mo Lee, Sung Eun Namkoong, Woong Shick Ahn
1Catholic Research Institutes of Medical Science, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea.
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea.
3College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Korea.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
A constituent of green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been known to possess anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of EGCG on human ovarian cancer cell lines. The growth inhibitory mechanism(s) and regulation of cell cycle-related proteins by EGCG were also evaluated. METHODS: To carry out cell counting assay to observe the anti-proliferative effects, we treated 25, 50, and 100 uM EGCG to both ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3, respectively. Also, we treated EGCG to PA-1 cells with 6.25, 12.5 and 25 uM, respectively. Six days later, we examined the characteristics of apoptosis and changes in cell cycle regulation by cell counting assay, Annexin V-FITC staining and DNA fragmentation assay, and FACS analysis. In addition, protein and gene expression patterns in SKOV-3 cell were investigated by using cell cycle cDNA chip, RT-PCR, and Western blot analyses. RESULTS: Inhibition of cell growth by cell counts showed in SKOV-3 cells with 48.8%, 82.5%, 99.2% after six days of the treatment with 25, 50, 100 uM of EGCG, respectively. OVCAR-3 cells showed 53.9%, 84.8%, and 97.7% growth inhibition patterns. And PA-1 cells showed 17.1%, 48.4%, and 74.1%, as compared to control. When SKOV-3 cells were tested for EGCG-induced apoptosis, apoptotic cells were observed with 8.6, 11.4, and 23.3-fold at 25, 50, 100 uM EGCG, respectively. And PA-1 cells showed 1.7, 2.4, and 4.2-fold, as compared to control. In contrast, OVCAR-3 did not show EGCG-induced apoptosis. When SKOV-3 cells were tested for their gene expression using cell cycle cDNA chip after treatment with 24.5 uM of EGCG, up-regulations of p21, Bax and cyclin G were shown, while down-regulations of CDK6, E2F-4, and cyclin A were shown. In Western blot assay, up-regulations of Bax and p21 proteins were shown, while down- regulations of cyclin D1, Bcl-XL, Rb, CDK2, E2F-1, E2F-4, PCNA proteins were shown. CONCLUSION: These data support that EGCG can inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as well as regulation of gene and protein expressions. Thus, EGCG likely provides an additional option for a new and potential drug approach for ovarian cancer.
Key Words: (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), Ovarian cancer, Apoptosis, Cell cycle


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