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Korean Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2005;48(2):363-369.
Published online February 1, 2005.
Transcervical embryoscopy in missed abortion.
Kwang Moon Yang, Sun Hwa Cha, Hae Suk Kim, Jin Young Kim, Hye Ok Kim, Hyun Kyong Ahn, June Seek Choi, Hyun Mee Ryu, In Soo Kang, Mi Kyoung Koong
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Cheil Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, SungKyunKwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. mkkoong2004@yahoo.co.kr
Approximately 15-20% of all clinically recognized pregnancies result in spontaneous abortion and 60-70% of these are attributable to detectable chromosome abnormalities. Although the incidence of first trimester losses is high, spontaneous abortion material is often poorly described from a development perspective. The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of transcervical embryoscopy in diagnosing localized and generalized defects in the embryonic morphogenesis of missed abortions. The embryoscopic findings are supplemented by the results of cytogenetic analysis in all cases. METHODS: In this study, consisted of 26 women with the final diagnosis of missed abortion between August 1, 2003 and October 31, 2003 in Samsung Cheil Hospital. Prior to the instrumental evacuation of the uterus a rigid hysteroscope was passed transcervically into the amniotic cavity to obtain a detail view of the embryo. Karyotyping was done in all cases included in this study. RESULTS: Visualization of embryo or early fetus was successful in 24 cases. Among 24 examined cases, 21 cases had successful karyotype and as a result 11 (11/21, 52.4%) had abnormal karyotype. Among 21 cases which had successful karyope, 4 (4/21, 19.0%) had normal external features, 10 (10/21, 47.6%) had classified as growth-disorganized and 7 (7/21, 33.3%) had either isolated or multiple defects, including facial dysplasia, delayed limb development, facial fusion to chest, umbilical cyst, brownish discoloration of ventral part and increased nuchal thickness. Of the morphologically normal and growth-disorganized embryo in embryoscopic examination, only 1 and 4 (1/4, 25.0% and 4/10, 40.0%) had a abnormal karyotype. In contrast, of the morphologically abnormal embryo in embryoscopic examination, 5 (5/7, 71.4%) had a abnormal karyotype. CONCLUSION: Transcervical embryoscopy permits visualization of the embryo in utero, unaffected by the damage usually caused by its instrumental evacuation or spontaneous passage. This technique can be a helpful tool for understanding human embryonic malformations and genetic counseling for parents. Futhermore, correlation of morphological and cytogenetic findings in spontaneous abortion specimens could provide the need of further evaluation for future pregnancies in couples which had fear of repeated abortions. But, more larger scaled controlled study is needed for widely use of transcervical embryoscopy in missed abortion.
Key Words: Missed abortion, Embryoscopy, Anomaly, Chromosome analysis

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