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Korean Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2006;49(6):1294-1303.
Published online June 1, 2006.
Effect of Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-beta and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)-gamma in Endometrial Decidualization.
Jong Hee Kwon, Jae Hoon Lee, Hye Jin Chang, Dong Wook Park, Young Ah Kim, Mi Ran Kim, Kyung Joo Hwang
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea. kjhwang74@hanmail.net
2Department of Biological Sciences, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea.
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University, Ilsan, Korea.
To ascertain the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptors in normal human endometrium during the menstrual cycle, and the action of TGF-beta and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma during endometrial decidualization using cultured human endometrial stromal cells. METHODS: Human endometrial tissues were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of TGF-beta receptors and Smad. Western blotting, confocal microscopy and viable cell counting were performed on cultured human endometrial stromal cells which were treated with TGF-beta (10 ng/mL) and PPAR-gamma agonists (Rosiglitazone(R) 50 nM). Thereafter we compared the effect of TGF-beta and PPAR-gamma on the Smad phosphorylation, prolactin expression, and cellular proliferation in vitro human endometrial decidualization. RESULTS: The results revealed significantly increased expression of both TGF-beta receptor-I and -II proteins in the secretory stromal cells compared to the epithelial cells of human endometrium. The degree of expression and translocation into the nucleus of the phosphorylated Smad2/3 was also increased in the secretory endometrium compared to the proliferative endometrium. In the stromal cell culture, the decidualization process associated with TGF-beta and pSmad is inhibited by the PPAR-gamma agonist. In contrast to the PPAR-gamma agonist, TGF-beta inhibits cellular proliferation. CONCLUSION: TGF-beta/Smad signaling pathway is essential for endometrial decidualization and closely related to cellular differentiation. PPAR-gamma plays a conflicting role by directly acting on the Smad protein and blocking the TGF-beta/Smad signaling pathway.
Key Words: Endometrial stromal cell, Decidualization, TGF-beta, Smad, PPAR-gamma

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